To communicate securely over the internet, HTTPS (HTTP over TLS) is used. A key component of HTTPS is Certificate authority (CA), which by issuing digital certificates acts as a trusted 3rd party between server(eg: google.com) and others(eg: mobiles, laptops).
In this article, we will learn how to obtain certificates from a server and manually verify them on a laptop to establish a chain of trust.
Chain of Trust
TLS certificate chain typically consists of server certificate which is signed by intermediate certificate of CA which is inturn signed with CA root certificate.
Using OpenSSL, we can gather the server and intermediate certificates sent by a server using the following command.
$ openssl s_client -showcerts -connect avilpage.com:443
depth=2 C = US, O = DigiCert Inc, OU = www.digicert.com, CN = DigiCert High Assurance EV Root CA
depth=1 C = US, O = DigiCert Inc, OU = www.digicert.com, CN = DigiCert SHA2 High Assurance Server CA
depth=0 C = US, ST = California, L = San Francisco, O = "GitHub, Inc.", CN = www.github.com
0 s:/C=US/ST=California/L=San Francisco/O=GitHub, Inc./CN=www.github.com
i:/C=US/O=DigiCert Inc/OU=www.digicert.com/CN=DigiCert SHA2 High Assurance Server CA
1 s:/C=US/O=DigiCert Inc/OU=www.digicert.com/CN=DigiCert SHA2 High Assurance Server CA
i:/C=US/O=DigiCert Inc/OU=www.digicert.com/CN=DigiCert High Assurance EV Root CA
Verify return code: 0 (ok)
This command internally verfies if the certificate chain is valid. The output contains the server certificate and the intermediate certificate along with their issuer and subject. Copy both the certificates into
We can decode these pem files and see the information in these certificates using
$ openssl x509 -noout -text -in server.crt
Version: 3 (0x2)
Signature Algorithm: sha256WithRSAEncryption
We can also get only the subject and issuer of the certificate with
$ openssl x509 -noout -subject -noout -issuer -in server.pem
issuer= CN=DigiCert SHA2 High Assurance Server CA
$ openssl x509 -noout -subject -noout -issuer -in intermediate.pem
subject= CN=DigiCert SHA2 High Assurance Server CA
issuer= CN=DigiCert High Assurance EV Root CA
Now that we have both server and intermediate certificates at hand, we need to look for the relevant root certificate (in this case DigiCert High Assurance EV Root CA) in our system to verify these.
If you are using a Linux machine, all the root certificate will readily available in
.pem format in
If you are using a Mac, open
Keychain Access, search and export the relevant root certificate in
We have all the 3 certificates in the chain of trust and we can validate them with
$ openssl verify -verbose -CAfile root.pem -untrusted intermediate.pem server.pem
If there is some issue with validation OpenSSL will throw an error with relevant information.
In this article, we learnt how to get certificates from the server and validate them with the root certificate using OpenSSL.