How To Root Xiamo Redmi 9 Prime Without TWRP

Introduction

Rooting1 an android device voids warranty but gives a great control over the device. For most of the popular devices, TWRP2 recovery is available. Once a device bootloader is unlocked, we can install TWRP recovery. After that we can flash Magisk to gain root access.

For some devices like Redmi 9 Prime(codename: lancelot), TWRP recovery is not available officially. There are couple of unofficial images but they are not working as expected and are causing bootloop.

In this article, lets see how to root lancelot device.

Rooting Lancelot

First ensure that the device bootloader is unlocked and your system has adb & fastboot installed. To root without TWRP, we need to obtain patched boot.img & vbmeta.img and flash them in fastboot mode.

First we need to download the stock ROM of the device to extract boot.img file. We can go to manufacturers site and download the same stock ROM3 that is running on the device. Once the ROM is downloaded, we can unzip it. There we can find boot.img file.

We need to patch this file. To patch this, download magisk app on the device. Click on install and select the boot.img file to patch. After a few minutes, it will generate a patched boot file.

We can download this file to system by running the following command.

$ adb pull -p /storage/emulated/0/Download/magisk_patched-25200_cU1ws.img .

Now we need to download patched vbmeta file. This is available in XDA4 forum. Click this link to download it.

Once we have both patched files, we can reboot the device in fastboot mode by using the following commands.

$ adb devices

$ adb reboot bootloader

When the device is in fastboot mode, run the following commands to root it.

$ fastboot --disable-verity --disable-verification flash vbmeta vbmeta_redmi9.img

$ fastboot flash boot magisk_patched-25200_cU1ws.img

$ fastboot reboot

Once the deivce is rebooted, we can install root checker app and verify that the device is rooted successfully.

Final Thoughts

When we buy a Mac or PC(Linux/Windows), it is rooted by default. For Linux/Mac, we can run programs as sudo. For windows, we can just run a program as an administrator. There are no extra steps to root/jailbreak these devices.

But most mobile companies make rooting hard and only tech savy users can root the device. It would be great if mobile phones are rooted by default.

Integrating Frappe Health with SNOMED CT

Introduction

Frappe Health1 is an open-source Healthcare Information System(HIS), to efficiently manage clinics, hospitals, and other healthcare organizations. Frappe Health is built on the Frappe Framework2, a low code highly customizable framework.

Frappe Health provides support for integrating various medical coding standards3. In the patient encounter doctype, doctors can search and add pre-configured medical codes.

In this article, let’s see how to integrate Frappe Health with SNOMED CT.

SNOMED CT Integration

SNOMED CT4 is a comprehensive collection of medical terms which helps consistent data exchange between systems. It can also cross-map to other standards like ICD-10, LOINC, etc.

Since SNOMED CT is a huge dataset, it takes a lot of effort to import the entire dataset into Frappe Health. It also provides REST API to query SNOMED terms. Also, if your healthcare organization is focusing on only a specific domain, it doesn’t make sense to import the entire dataset.

In such scenarios, it is better to map only the required diagnosis, symptoms, and other clinical objects.

Frappe Health has a Diagnosis doctype where practitioners can enter diagnosis. We can add an additional field called Snomed Code to link diagnosis to relevant SNOMED code.

Frappe framework provides server script5 to dynamically run python script on any document event. We can write a simple python script to fetch relevant SNOMED code using SNOMED REST API. This script can be executed whenever the clinical object gets modified.

Here is a simple python server script that adds relevant snomed codes to diagnosis.

diagnosis = doc.diagnosis

url = "https://browser.ihtsdotools.org/snowstorm/snomed-ct/browser/MAIN/descriptions?&limit=50&term=" + diagnosis + "&conceptActive=true&lang=english&skipTo=0&returnLimit=100"
data = frappe.make_get_request(url)
code = data['items'][0]['concept']['id']
description = data['items'][0]['concept']['fsn']['term']

mc = frappe.get_doc({
    'doctype': 'Medical Code',
    'code': code,
    'medical_code_standard': 'SNOMED',
    'description': description,
})
try:
    mc.insert()
except:
    pass

doc.medical_code = medical_code.name

After saving this script, if we go ahead and create or modify any diagnosis, it will automatically add relevant Snomed code to the diagnosis as shown below.

The server script makes sure all the diagnosis objects are codified automatically without any manual effort.

Since Frappe Framework & Frappe Health are low code, extremely customizable, we are able to integrate it with SNOMED in just a few minutes. Similarly, we can codify other clinical objects like Symptoms, Procedures, Medications, etc.

Mastering DICOM - #3 Setup Modality Worklist SCP

Introduction

In the earlier article, we have learnt how to setup DICOM for digging deeper into DICOM protocol. In this article, let us learn how to setup a modality worklist(WML) SCP. Modalities can send C-FIND queries to this SCP and retrieve worklist information

Using Orthanc Worklist Plugin

Orthanc server has worklist plugin1 which will serve worklist files that are stored in a particular directory. Let us download sample worklist files from Orthanc repository and keep in "WorklistDatabase" directory.

Generate default configuration by running the following command.

$ ./Orthanc --config=config.json

In the orthanc configuration file, enable worklist plugin, specify the worklist database directory so that Orthanc can locate relevant worklist files, add required modalities and restart the server.

  "Plugins" : [
    "libModalityWorklists.dylib"
  ],

  "Worklists" : {
    "Enable": true,
    "Database": "./WorklistsDatabase",
    "FilterIssuerAet": false,
    "LimitAnswers": 0
  },

  "DicomModalities" : {
      "PYNETDICOM" : ["PYNETDICOM", "127.0.0.1", 4243],
      "FINDSCU" : ["FINDSCU", "127.0.0.1", 4244]
  }

Once the plugin is enabled, we can use findscu to send C-FIND query.

$ findscu -W -k "ScheduledProcedureStepSequence" 127.0.0.1 4242

This will retrieve all worklist files from the server.

Using wlmscpfs

dcmtk 2 is a collection of utilities for DICOM standard. It has wlmscpfs application which implements basic Service Class Provider(SCP). We can start the service by running the following command.

wlmscpfs --debug --data-files-path WorklistsDatabase 4242

Once the service is started modalities can send C-FIND query to this service.

Conclusion

We have seen how to setup MWL SCP using Orthanc & wmlscpfs. Now that we have PACS & WML SCP up and running, in the next article lets see how to dig deeper in to the dicom standard.

Twilio Integration With Frappe Framework

Frappe1 is a low code framework for rapidly developing web applications. Twilio2 is a SAAS platform for SMS, Video etc with APIs.

In this post, lets see how to setup Twilio Integration with Frappe.

Sending SMS

Frappe has inbuilt SMS manager3 where users can confgiure SMS gateway and send SMS to mobiles directly.

To send out messages/SMS with Twilio, we just need to configure Twilio API keys in SMS settings.

First, create an account in Twilio and collect the following information from the account.

  • Twilio account SID

  • Gateway URL

  • Auth Token

  • "From" Phone number

These details need to be added to SMS settings in the following format.

For authorization parameter, we need to enter base64 encoded value of account_sid:auth_token.

Once these values are set, we can go to SMS Center and send out dummy messages to ensure all settings are configured properly.

Twilio App

If we want to manage incoming/outgoing voice calls or send messages via WhatsApp, we need to install twilio-integration4 app. We can install the app on our site by running the following commands.

bench get-app https://github.com/frappe/twilio-integration.git
bench --site example.com install-app twilio_integration

Once the app is installed, we can go to Twilio Settings and configure the keys as shown below.

After that we can setup Voice Call Settings to manage incoming/outgoing calls.

To send messages via Whatsapp, we can set the channel as Whatsapp in Notification doctype.

This is how we can send SMS, Whatsapp messages & manage calls via Twilio using Frappe Framework.

Why DMART is not in FNO category?

FNO Segment

There are 4000+ companies1 that are traded in NSE/BSE. Of these, 198 stocks are included in FNO segement2. For these stocks, Futures & Options(FNO) contracts will be available and these stocks won't have any fixed ciruit limits.

FNO Reviews

On 11th April 2018, SEBI released a circular(SEBI/HO/MRD/DP/CIR/P/2018/67) on a framework3 for reviewing stocks in derivatives segement. Based on this framework, a stock has to meet the below criteria be added in FNO segement.

  • The stock shall be chosen from amongst the top 500 stocks in terms of average daily market capitalization and average daily traded value in the previous six months on a rolling basis.

  • The stock’s median quarter-sigma order size over the last six months, on a rolling basis, shall not be less than ₹25 Lakh.

  • The market wide position limit(MWPL) in the stock shall not be less than ₹500 crore on a rolling basis.

  • Average daily delivery value in the cash market shallnot be less than ₹10 crore in the previous six months on a rolling basis.

If a stock is in FNO category and fails to meet this criteria, it will be removed from FNO segment.

In 2021 alone, SEBI released 6 circulars thrugh which 32 new stocks are added in the FNO segment.

DMART

DMART has met the above FNO criteria long back. Even after it has met the criteria, there were more than 6 reviews456 and suprisingly DMART was not added to the FNO segement.

There is a long discussion on Zerodha TradingQ&A forum7 on why DMART was not added to FNO category but no one could give any explaination.

After that, I have sent an email to SEBI & NSE seeking clarification for the same. It has been more than 6 months and they haven't responded yet. I have reached out to few people in the trading community privately to get clarification on the same. But nobody I know has any clue on this.

I am still looking for an answer. If you can shed some light, please send out a message to me. I would like to have a quick chat with you regarding the same.

Hoping to solve the mystery soon.

Using Frappe Framework As REST API Generator

Introduction

When a company plans to build a mobile application and/or a web application, they need to create REST APIs to store data. This is a common requirement for CRUD applications.

In the Python ecosystem, there are several projects like Django Rest Framework, Flask-RESTful, FastApi which does the heavy lifting of implementing REST APIs. In other ecosystems, there are similar projects/frameworks for this job.

REST API Generators

By using the above mentioned frameworks, developers can build REST APIs at a faster rate. Still, developers have to develop and maintain code for these APIs.

To avoid even this work, there are REST API generators like postgrest1, prest which can instantly generate REST APIs by inspecting database schema. With these, developers just have to design the DB schema and these tools take care of generating APIs without writing a single line of code.

In this post, let us see how Frappe framework can be used as a REST API generator and what are the advantages of using Frappe.

Frappe Framework

Frappe framework is meta data driven low code, web framework written in Python and Javascript.

Web UI

Frappe framework provides web UI to create models(called doctypes in Frappe) and it provides REST API2 for all the models out of the box.

There is no need to write manual SQL queries to manage schema. With some training even non-developers can even manage models in Frappe.

Roles & Permissions

With traditional API generators, managing roles & permissions involves additional development and maintenance costs. Frappes comes with an authentication system and it has support for role based permissions out of the box. From the web UI, users can manage roles & permissions.

Hooks

Even though REST API generators give API out of the box, there will be scenarios where custom business logic needs to be hooked in for various events. In such scenarios, developers end up using an alternate framework/tool to manage hooks and business logic.

Frappe provides server scripts by which arbitrary python code can be executed dynamically based on model events. There is no need to set up another framework for these things.

Utilities

Frappe framework comes with a lot of utilities like Job Queues, Schedulers, Admin interface, socket.io etc. As the project grows and the need evolves, Frappe has all the common utilities that are required for a web application development.

Conclusion

When a company wants to build a solution to a problem, it should focus most of the time in solving that problem instead of wasting their time on building CRUD interfaces or REST APIs.

Frappe framework was designed to rapidly build web applications with low code. If you need a REST API generator and some additional functionality for the REST APIs, Frappe framework fits the bill and reduces a lot of development time.